Objections on the Prophet’s Personality - Khalid Masud

Objections on the Prophet’s Personality

 Observing the interest and the manner in which people belonging to all walks of life were impressed by the message being preached by the Prophet (sws), the leaders of the Quraysh began to see clear evidence of its success. Deeply concerned, on the one hand, they tried to create doubts about the authenticity of the Qur’an, and on the other, attempted to cast a shadow over the fact of Muhammad (sws) being God’s prophet. They put across various arguments aimed at turning people against the Prophet (sws).

 

The Taunt of being Human

The Prophet (sws) was born in the tribe of Banu Hashim. His ancestors were well known and respected. He was brought up among the people of Makkah. He adopted trade as his profession, set up partnerships with several traders of Makkah and created a name for himself as an honest and trustworthy tradesman. He married within one of the tribes of Makkah and had children. He thus had the same needs as those of any other human being, and went through similar upheavals in life. He faced the same problems ordinary men faced. Seen from this perspective, his life was no different from any other human being’s. The Quraysh used this argument as propaganda against him, saying that he was a human being just like any of them. He went to the market to meet his needs, faced problems related to his wife and children and got sick, and was likely to die: how could he then claim to be a representative of God? He was the same as the rest of them, and therefore his assertion of being a prophet was absolutely false.

It is obvious that this argument from the Quraysh could not find any ground for intelligent minds who questioned the Quraysh on this point further. The latter then had to offer additional arguments: such as that Muhammad (sws) was not able to succeed as well as he had wished to as a trader and as a family member, and as he had wanted to become one of the elite of the Quraysh, he had claimed prophethood, the authenticity of which could never be proved. If they were to be awed by this and accept this claim from someone who was just another ordinary human being, they would only harm themselves by submitting to him. According to historical records, some people saw this situation in the context of rivalry between the tribes of the Quraysh; one leader of the Banu Ummayah had said that they had fought the Banu Hashim in every field of life, and now one of them was claiming prophethood and thus superiority over others – were they to become their servants?

At times, the Quraysh would negate the possibility of any divine revelation being sent to a human being. They would question the selection of Muhammad (sws) as the person to whom the divine message was being revealed: why was it not being revealed to any of the others? If Muhammad (sws) was telling the truth, then they expected to receive the same message that other prophets had received. If they received the same divine revelation, they would not hesitate in believing Muhammad (sws); otherwise not. They would also say that a human being could not be the medium to spread the message of God; this should be a job performed by angels, since they were made of light, and were closest to God. Had God desired to enlighten and guide people, He would have sent His angels. Unless He made these arrangements, they would continue to believe that Muhammad’s (sws) claim was based on lies.

The people of Makkah would often ask their leaders about the message being preached by the Prophet (sws); the incidents related to previous prophets that were quoted in the Qur’anic passages and the predictions therein of the terrible end of those who disbelieved in the Prophet (sws). The leaders would reassure them that Muhammad (sws) was making up these stories: they were concocted tales related to people of yester years that were being presented under the name of God. To some extent, the People of the Book were also involved in this conspiracy, as some of them conveyed information from their books to Muhammad (sws) which he then presented as divine revelation. The Quraysh also used the loyalty of their people to their ancestors as an instrument against the truth. They would pitch the knowledge being communicated by the Prophet (sws) against that of their forefathers, saying that there could be no comparison between the two. Real knowledge was what had been passed on from their forefathers, whereas this individual (the Prophet) was trying to get people away from their gods and had taken on the guise of a prophet. Therefore, they argued, the need of the day was to stay away from Muhammad (sws), not to listen to what he said and to remain strictly loyal to their gods and to the religion of their ancestors.

While several leaders propagated this idea, among the most prominent were Abu Lahab and Abu Jahal who shadowed the Prophet (sws) incessantly. Whenever the Prophet (sws) preached to an individual or a group and called them towards belief in one God, they would immediately negate his teachings by referring to their ancestors and their religion, telling people that the Prophet (sws) was talking against their forefathers and that he thought that they were against the truth. So, they must not accept his teaching. Abu Lahab’s rant is quoted in history in the following words:

O! Banu such and such! This person is calling upon you to throw off the yoke of the supporters who love Banu Malik ibn Uqaysh and Lat and ‘Uzza, and instead accept the innovation and deviation from the right path that he preaches. Do not listen to him, and do not believe in what he says.1

These people had also instructed their hooligans to make as much noise as possible when the Prophet (sws) was talking to others, and to create so much trouble that it would become impossible for him to communicate with others. They would try to satisfy their audience that their stance was correct by reassuring them that they had the backing of God when they worshipped so many idols and branded various items halal and haram in their names. Their argument was that if they were wrong, God would have stopped them by using His powers. They considered the concept of the Day of Judgment merely an illusion used to frighten people and said that it was impossible to be raised once again to life after being dead and reduced to dust and ashes. According to them, Muhammad (sws) was introducing this idea to merely increase the number of his followers.

The objection of the Quraysh of the Prophet (sws) being a human being was totally baseless. They knew well enough that Abraham (sws) and Ishmael (sws) were both the ancestors of the Arabs. Their family lines could be traced to the beginning of the Quraysh and the latter were proud to be linked to these respected personalities. They also knew that the two were prophets of God and it was the same religion that they had taught, the remains of which were dear to the Quraysh and the basis of their sovereignty among the Arab tribes. It was not hidden from the Quraysh that God’s prophets were human beings,  and like other people, they married, ate and drank, lived with their families and got involved in the same activities of life as others did. The Quraysh also knew about the prophets of the Israelites, who were all human beings, none being angels. Being a human being was never a barrier to prophethood.

Linking prophets to other creations was incomprehensible. Only a human being could guide and educate other human beings, because he possessed similar emotions and feelings, desires and needs as well as abilities. If this had not been the case, it would have been impossible for the guide to explain any issue in a manner they could understand, or produce a practical example. Had there been angels living on this earth, and God had desired to guide them, He may well have sent an angel to be a prophet amongst them. The Qur’an clarified this point thus:

 

قُل لَّوْ كَانَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَلَائِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ مَلَكًا رَّسُولً وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ أَن يُؤْمِنُوا إِذْ جَاءَهُمُ الْهُدَىٰ إِلَّا أَن قَالُوا أَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ بَشَرًا رَّسُول (١٧:٩٤-٩٥)

And what prevented the people from believing when guidance came to them except that they said: “As Allah sent a human messenger?” Say: “If there were upon the earth angels walking securely, We would have sent down to them from the heaven an angel [as a] messenger.” (17:94-95)

Sending angels individually to people was also inappropriate because prophet hood suits only the person who is the best example of trustworthiness, peace loving and pure of heart and of the highest morality of character within society. Such a human being has the capacity to absorb the light of divine guidance within himself because of his inner nature, whereas people who are immersed in worldliness are unable to grasp the real essence of such guidance. This is why the Qur’an says: “God knows well on whom to bestow the responsibility of prophethood?” (6:124)

In answer to the demand from the Quraysh of sending angels to them, the Qur’an, on the one hand clarified that not everyone was worthy of being chosen by God of achieving the exalted status of prophet hood, and on the other, also explained that angels could descend on other human beings, but this could be very dangerous for the person concerned. In such instances, angels came with a final purpose, and in case of those who refused to believe in prophets, their purpose was to destroy them. One such example had been stated in the Qur’an of the people of Lot (sws) thus:

 

وَقَالُوا يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِي نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ الذِّكْرُ إِنَّكَ لَمَجْنُون لَّوْ مَا تَأْتِينَا بِالْمَلَائِكَةِ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ مَا نُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَمَا كَانُوا إِذًا مُّنظَرِينَ إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونٌَ (١٥: ٦-٩)

And they say: “O you upon whom the message has been sent down, indeed you are mad. Why do you not bring us the angels, if you should be among the truthful?” We do not send down the angels except with truth; and the disbelievers would not then be reprieved. Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian. (15:6-9)

In reality, all prophets who had come before Muhammad (sws) had to face the same objection of being human by their detractors. This objection from the Quraysh was nothing new. People of all ages had the same difficulty in accepting prophets and they had declared the claim of their prophets as an attempt to gain superiority over them. This becomes clear also from the following verses of the Qur’an:

 

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُون فَقَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن قَوْمِهِ مَا هَٰذَا إِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُرِيدُ أَن يَتَفَضَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَأَنزَلَ مَلَائِكَةً مَّا سَمِعْنَا بِهَٰذَا فِي آبَائِنَا الْأَوَّلِينَ (٢٣: ٢٣-٢٤)

And We had certainly sent Noah to his people, and he said: “O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him; then will you not fear Him?” But the eminent among those who disbelieved from his people said: “This is not but a man like yourselves who wishes to take precedence over you; and if Allah had willed [to send a messenger], He would have sent down angels. We have not heard of this among our forefathers.” (23:23-24)

 

ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ قَرْنًا آخَرِين. فَأَرْسَلْنَا فِيهِمْ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ وَقَالَ الْمَلَأُ مِن قَوْمِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِلِقَاءِ الْآخِرَةِ وَأَتْرَفْنَاهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مَا هَٰذَا إِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يَأْكُلُ مِمَّا تَأْكُلُونَ مِنْهُ وَيَشْرَبُ مِمَّا تَشْرَبُونَ وَلَئِنْ أَطَعْتُم بَشَرًا مِّثْلَكُمْ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا لَّخَاسِرُونَ أَيَعِدُكُمْ أَنَّكُمْ إِذَا مِتُّمْ وَكُنتُمْ تُرَابًا وَعِظَامًا أَنَّكُم مُّخْرَجُونَ هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ لِمَا تُوعَدُونَ (٢٣: ٣١-٣٦)

Then We produced after them a generation of others. And We sent among them a messenger from themselves, [saying]: “Worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him; then will you not fear Him?” And the eminent among his people who disbelieved and denied the meeting of the Hereafter while We had given them luxury in the worldly life said: “This is not but a man like yourselves. He eats of that from which you eat and drinks of what you drink. And if you should obey a man like yourselves, indeed, you would then be losers. Does he promise you that when you have died and become dust and bones that you will be brought forth [once more]? How far, how far, is that which you are promised.” (23:31-36)

As far as information regarding previous prophets is concerned, the Quraysh knew well enough that the Prophet (sws) had been unaware of their history initially. He was not an educated man, nor had he heard of what had been written of them in the holy books. Despite his ignorance, he spoke with authenticity after the Qur’an was revealed to him. If the People of the Book had distorted any facts, he corrected them and each fact that was related also included a lesson to be learned by the Quraysh. Thus, the historical facts were not told as stories, but were contextualized to the situation of the Quraysh. Often, the Prophet (sws) was questioned on a specific historic incident, and the Qur’an answered it with full clarification. Even if we assume that the Prophet (sws) had someone who was feeding him the information, how was it possible to provide such complete facts immediately? Obviously this knowledge was coming to him through divine revelation because he was God’s prophet, and God Himself was guiding him at every step. Thus, Moses’ (sws) stay in Madyan and the events at the mount of Tur; the birth of a son to Zakariyya (sws); the care being taken of Mary (sws); the details of Joseph’s (sws)’s life; Zulqarnayn’s victories and events related to several other prophets are explained in detail in the Qur’an. God transmitted this information to the Prophet (sws), although he had been completely unaware of it before prophethood. After giving these facts to him, the Qur’an said:

 

تِلْكَ مِنْ أَنبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهَا إِلَيْكَ مَا كُنتَ تَعْلَمُهَا أَنتَ وَلَا قَوْمُكَ مِن قَبْلِ هَٰذَ ا (٤٩:١١)

That is from the news of the unseen which We reveal to you, [O Muhammad]. You knew it not, neither you nor your people, before this. (11:49)

The teachings of their forefathers that the Quraysh were so proud of were also very different and had been completely distorted from what had been transferred originally from Abraham (sws) to his subsequent generations. The greatest damage had been done by ‘Amr ibn Luhayy Khazarji, when he installed statues within the Ka‘bah. Later, the managers of the House of God created a comprehensive system based on idolatry and innovation. The true followers of Abraham (sws), called Hanif, continued to protest against the new idolatrous religion, and the group had managed to retain its identity until the prophet hood of Muhammad (sws). The Quraysh had no real problems with the moral teachings of the Prophet (sws). But when he spoke against their idolatry, this was an attack against their vested interests which they were ready to protect these at all costs.

Similarly, they could find no basis to object to the Prophet being human. Whatever they said were flimsy excuses.

 

The Taunt of Lack of Worldly Goods

Holding the Prophet’s humble lifestyle in contempt, the Quraysh would also say that if God had to bestow prophethood on a human being, He would have given him worldly goods and riches so that his status in this society was elevated, and he could have stood with the other leaders with his head high. Muhammad (sws) was not even well to do, whereas there were several other leaders who were not only financially well placed, but possessed a strong personality and were thus more prominent than Muhammad (sws). These individuals, according to the Quraysh, were more worthy of becoming God’s representatives in the world. No one among Muhammad’s companions was near comparable. They were impetuous youth and slaves who had gathered around him, but no wise leader had joined him. Hence, his teaching influenced only those who were of a low mental level and who were not able to distinguish between falsehood and the truth.

The Quraysh would make certain demands of the Prophet (sws), asking him to perform miracles. They would ask him to create a freshwater spring in the water scarce land if he was a true representative of God; obtain for himself an oasis and a garden with water ways running in its centre; such a garden would provide him with riches and thus prove that God thought him worthy enough; or ask God to make a palace of gold for him that would visibly demonstrate his wealth. They expected him to perform some extraordinary feats to prove his identity as a messenger of God. So, if it was true that everything came from God, why could he not make some pieces of the sky fall on them? Or make God and a few angels come and become visible to them? Or could he not climb up to the heavens in front of them, have the revelation written and bring it to them, which they could read for themselves? If he could do any of this, they would accept him as a prophet of God. The Quraysh believed that since they were better than Muslims in worldly riches, this was proof of being better also in the eyes of God. Had they incurred God’s wrath, He would not have left them to enjoy life in the manner they were living it.

They also held the Prophet’s companions in great contempt. They refused even to sit close to them, and told the Prophet (sws) that they would listen to him only if they were not there. History tells us that they made fun of the poor Muslims, teased and abused them and taunted the Prophet (sws) on being close to them. The Prophet (sws) would often worry how to handle such arrogant leaders and how to preach to them.

When he talked about the Day of Judgment and the punishments that would be meted out to those who denied the message preached by him, the leaders were outraged. They were not ready to understand that the poor and humble companions of the Prophet might be rewarded with the blessings of Paradise, and the leaders of the Quraysh would be thrown into hell. They formed groups to threaten the Prophet (sws) and force him to give up his preaching.

The lack of worldly possessions of the Prophet (sws), or the fact that his companions were poor and humble were both ludicrous objections from the Quraysh. Material possessions have absolutely no relationship with moral or spiritual guidance. The two are different situations altogether. If a person is rich, it is not tantamount to his being morally strong. Often, it is seen that such people may become involved in evil deeds that people with less resources normally do not indulge in. In any case, guidance is given by God, and He decides who to bestow His guidance upon. Worldly goods and riches, are, in fact a trial and are mentioned in the Qur’an with contempt thus:

 

وَقَالُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٍ مِّنَ الْقَرْيَتَيْنِ عَظِيم  أَهُمْ يَقْسِمُونَ رَحْمَتَ رَبِّكَ نَحْنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُم مَّعِيشَتَهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِّيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُم بَعْضًا سُخْرِيًّا وَرَحْمَتُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ  وَلَوْلَا أَن يَكُونَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً لَّجَعَلْنَا لِمَن يَكْفُرُ بِالرَّحْمَٰنِ لِبُيُوتِهِمْ سُقُفًا مِّن فِضَّةٍ وَمَعَارِجَ عَلَيْهَا يَظْهَرُونَ  وَلِبُيُوتِهِمْ أَبْوَابًا وَسُرُرًا عَلَيْهَا يَتَّكِئُونَ وَزُخْرُفًا وَإِن كُلُّ ذَٰلِكَ لَمَّا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةُ عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ  (٤٣: ٣١-٣٥)

And they said: “Why was this Qur’an not sent down upon a great man from [one of] the two cities?” Do they distribute the mercy of your Lord? It is We who have apportioned among them their livelihood in the life of this world and have raised some of them above others in degrees [of rank] that they may make use of one another for service. But the mercy of your Lord is better than whatever they accumulate. And if it were not that the people would become one community [of disbelievers], We would have made for those who disbelieve in the Most Merciful – for their houses – ceilings and stairways of silver upon which to mount And for their houses – doors and couches [of silver] upon which to recline And gold ornament. But all that is not but the enjoyment of worldly life. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for the righteous. (43:31-35)

 

Just as all prophets have faced objections of being human, they have also been ridiculed for attracting people from the poor and humble strata of society. Referring to the times of Noah (sws), the Qur’an says:

 

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ إِنِّي لَكُمْ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِين  أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا اللَّهَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ أَلِيمٍ  فَقَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن قَوْمِهِ مَا نَرَاكَ إِلَّا بَشَرًا مِّثْلَنَا وَمَا نَرَاكَ اتَّبَعَكَ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ هُمْ أَرَاذِلُنَا بَادِيَ الرَّأْيِ وَمَا نَرَىٰ لَكُمْ عَلَيْنَا مِن فَضْلٍ بَلْ نَظُنُّكُمْ كَاذِبِينَ (١١: ٢٥-٢٧)

And We had certainly sent Noah to his people, [saying]: “Indeed, I am to you a clear warner. That you not worship except Allah. Indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a painful day.” So the eminent among those who disbelieved from his people said: “We do not see you but as a man like ourselves, and we do not see you followed except by those who are the lowest of us [and] at first suggestion. And we do not see in you over us any merit; rather, we think you are liars.” (11:25-27)

We see, therefore, that the attitude of the Quraysh towards the Prophet (sws) was very similar to that of the nations of all previous prophets. Whenever he was asked to perform a miracle, he would answer that God had all power; he was merely a human being like them, but that he had been entrusted with the responsibility of prophet hood. If they wished to test him, they should do so from the criteria of prophethood. He had nothing to say to the demands they were making merely to frustrate him. The Qur’an says:

 

قُل لَّا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِي خَزَائِنُ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ (٥٠:٦)

Say: “[O Muhammad], I do not tell you that I have the depositories [containing the provision] of Allah or that I know the unseen, nor do I tell you that I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me.” (6:50)

 

The Accusation of being a Poet, Magician Sorcerer and Madman

An effective tactic to divert attention from someone’s real status is to create propaganda about his mission in such a manner so as to project it in an entirely different mode. Because the Prophet (sws) had the Qur’an which he recited and explained, thus presenting his status as a prophet, the Quraysh used this to accuse him sometimes of being a poet, other times of being a sorcerer who was trying to divide society. At times, they would say that he had lost his senses because someone had cast a spell on him. By branding him as a poet, they expected him and his “poetry” to end with the passage of time. If it was madness that was creating such a furore, it was not necessary to take it seriously. This was merely delirious talk that had no basis in reality.

The objections on the personality of the Prophet (sws) were addressed by God. He explained very clearly that the prophet was not a stranger to any of the Quraysh leaders. He had been born, bred and brought up among them. They had observed him at each stage of his life, from childhood to youth, and each of them was witness to his purity of character, high morals, goodness, integrity, honesty, trustworthiness and truthfulness. For forty years, they had trusted him implicitly, but now that God had given him His guidance, they had begun to hound him, forgetting their testimony to his character. His preaching had nothing to do with any falsehood or ego, nor was the divine revelation a figment of his imagination. Whatever he was presenting was not fortune telling, and it was not a means of obtaining money. Why was it that people were unable to observe that God was removing falsehood through His words and setting into place the real Truth? Such a message as the Qur’an that provided enlightenment and opened up hearts and minds to the truth had never been brought by false and illegitimate sources.

The fact was that the Quraysh had no basis to revile the Prophet’s character, nor did they have any arguments to convince anyone. They would merely swear and confuse simple minded people through their vehemence. They also created misunderstandings and spread rumours among Muslims so that they may become divided and weak, and begin to resent the Prophet (sws).

In answer to the accusation that Muhammad (sws) presented the text as coming from God and thus claim superiority, God clarified that the Prophet (sws) conducted his responsibility under strictest supervision. Just as no satanic force could take divine revelation from the Divine Angel (Gabriel), who delivered it to the Prophet (sws) in its pure form, it was kept with the Prophet intact such that he could not make any alterations to it either. If ever anyone dared to do this, God promised: “We will catch him with Our Arm. Cut his jugular vein, and no one can then save him from Our wrath.”

The Qur’an, asked the Prophet (sws) to announce that if he was in the wrong and that was the reason for them not joining him, he would be punished and they would be protected. But if he was right, and was receiving this guidance from his Lord, then they would be declared deniers of this guidance. This would not be taken as a simple offence. Hence, they were to think seriously before taking a decision.

The Qur’an also reassured the Prophet (sws) that he had not asked to receive divine revelation. He could not have done so. The Being Who sent it to him was the Only One who could continue or discontinue it. If He had thought it fit to bestow it upon him, He would also give him the wherewithal to fulfill his responsibilities, and keep him safe from the conspiracies of his enemies. Thus, he was to continue to keep doing what he was doing with patience, and disregard his foes. God was enough to deal with his enemies. Very soon they would meet their fate.

All efforts made by the Quraysh to lower the esteem in which the Prophet (sws) and his companions were held by people were in vain. The Prophet’s character suffered no blemish, and no misunderstanding about the authenticity of the Qur’an could be created. The followers of the Prophet (sws) increased in number day by day, and each and every tribe of the Quraysh had a mix of Muslims and disbelievers. In this situation, the leaders of the Quraysh had no option but to torture the Muslims even more, target the Prophet (sws), make it almost impossible for people to listen to the Qur’an and create such a reign of terror so as to stop further spread of Islam.

 

(Translated from Hayat-i Rasul-i Ummi by Nikhat Sattar)

 

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1. Ibn Hisham, Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, vol. 1, 423.

 

With thanks to Monthly Renaissance

Written/Published: Feb 2015

Translated by Nikhat Sattar

Author:   Khalid Masud
Uploaded on : Nov 24, 2015
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